String of pearl plant turn brown and shriveled as a result of under watering. String of pearl prefers bright indirect light and the leaves are sensitive to intense sun which can burn the leaves and turn them brown.
Over watering and slow draining soils can cause the pearls to turn brown or yellow, soft and mushy.
The older leaves of strong of pearl plants naturally turn brown and drop off as they grow.
Keep reading for more on why string of pearl plants turn brown and how to revive it…
String of Pearls Turning Brown and Shriveled
If your string of pearls (Senecio Rowleyanus) leaves turn brown and shriveled then this indicates under watering.
The shriveled appearance is the plants way of trying to limit transpiration (water loss) from the leaves.
String of pearl plants are succulents that store moisture in there leaves. If the plant is at optimal hydration the pearls are green, feel firm and the plant looks healthy.
(Read my article for how often and how much to water string of pearls plants).
String of pearls plants are adapted to grow in drought like conditions in its native in South west African environment with infrequent rainfall and well draining gritty soil and therefore is more susceptible to over watering.
However infrequent watering dry out the potting soil to the point the soil becomes hydrophobic (water resistant).
When certain potting soils dry out completely they tend to repel moisture so when you water the plant after a period of drought the water runs off the surface and down the side of the pot and thus does not reach the roots where it is required.
Water then trickles out the base of the pot which gives the false impression the your string of pearls has been well watered when actually the roots have not had the opportunity to uptake any water and the plant is essentially suffering from drought, turning the pearls brown and shriveled.
There some factors pertaining to growing string of pearls indoors that can dry the soil quicker that lead to a brown and shriveling:
- Near a source of heat or air current. The soil in potted string of pearls can heat up very quickly and the temperature can fluctuate significantly when next to a radiator or in the current of air con or forced air which can exacerbate drought stress.
- Watering too lightly. String of pearls is a drought tolerant plant but you should try to soak the soil and let it dry out between bouts of watering to replicate the conditions that it it accustomed to in its native environment. Light watering encourages shallow root growth as only the top inch or so of the soil receives moisture which increases susceptibility to drought and increases the risk of pearls shriveling and turning brown.
- Transplant shock from a change in conditions. String of pearls grows very well indoors but if it is moved from one area to another then the contrast in conditions can cause it to turn brown. The plant adapts to a rooms light intensity and hours of light, as well as temperature and levels of humidity. Moving it to a different room or perhaps taking one home from the store can change the environment and its requirements for moisture, particularly if it is moved from a cool less bright area to a hotter, sunnier and less humid location.
How to Revive Brown and Shriveled String of Pearl Plants
The key to reviving a brown and shriveled string of pearls plant is the right potting mix and proper watering.
String of pearls as with all succulents is adapted to growing is course gritty soils that are porous with a relatively large particle size.
If it is in a standard soil mix then this can increase the risk of root rot (because they retain too much moisture) and the potting mix can dry out and repel water off the surface, down the side of the pot, perpetuating the affect of drought despite watering.
Re-pot your string of pearls in a potting mix that has been specifically formulated for growing cactus and succulents (which are available at garden centers, nursery and on amazon).
Special succulent potting soil has the right properties that allow for good drainage (so that the plants doesn’t suffer from over watering) yet it is very effective at allowing water to infiltrate the soil and reach the roots after a period of not watering, rather then run off the top and down the side of the pot.
This allows for a more natural cycle of watering and optimal levels of soil moisture so that string of pearls can access the water and the soil does retain too much moisture which causes rot.
How often to water to prevent brown and shrived string of pearl plants…
It is not possible to give definitive advice on how often to water strong of pearls to avoid them turning brown as their watering requirements can differ depending on factors such as climate, sun intensity, temperature and humidity.
Finding the optimal watering frequency for a healthy plant requires an element of experimenting, but you should typically water strong of pearls far less frequently then most plants due to their adaptations to hostile dry conditions.
Typically I water my string of pearls once per week in the Spring and Summer during the active growing period and once every two or three weeks per week in Winter when the plant goes into a dormant state.
Keep in mind that in really hot climates, strong of pearls can go into a state of Summer dormancy to as a natural adaptation to conserve moisture in hostile arid climates.
In which case you should scale back the watering to once per week if you notice the growth rate of your string of pearls slowing significantly or see any signs of stress due to too much water such as soft mushy leaves, with some yellowing or browning.
My well draining succulent potting mix (from amazon) helps to promote good drainage which negates any potential problems from too much moisture and also allows water to reach the roots effectively after a bout of watering.
This helps keep my string of pearls a nice healthy green color and prevent shriving or brown leaves.
If your string of pearls is drying up despite good watering practices read my article for the solution.
Sun Burnt Leaves Turn Brown
String of pearls is a succulent that grows in hot and sunny areas, however it is adaptable to a range of light levels which makes it great from growing indoors but often grows best in bright indirect light.
The leaves can turn brown due to sun burn if the string of pearls has become accustomed to growing in an area of less intense light or perhaps less hours of sun per day and is then moved to a more sunny area.
The greater the contrast of sun between the two locations the more potential there is for your string of pearls to turn brown due to sun burn.
String of pearls turning brown due to sun burn can be easily distinguished from string of pearls turning brown due to under watering (or any other reason) as only the leaves that are in the most direct glare of the sun turn brown whereas leaves that have more shade or protection are either less burnt or still remain green.
Individual leaves generally do not recover once they have been burnt.
You can prune back any sun burnt pearls and let the plant regrow or perhaps take some cuttings with healthy leaves and use them for propagation.
String of pearl plant are very easy to propagate, so even badly burnt plants can be revived. Watch this YouTube video for how to propagate string of pearls.
Preventing String of Pearls Turning Brown due to Sun Burn
Spring of pearls are adapted to hot climates and can grow in partial sun but they must not be moved from one more shaded location to an area of sun, or they burn.
The string of pearls needs to acclimatize to new conditions gradually rather then contend with a drastic contrast in the intensity of light.
To do this, move your potted string of pearls plant to a more sunny area for a hour a day. Over the course of a month increase the plants exposure to direct light by about half an hour or so every 2 or 3 days.
Eventually the strong of pearls can adjust to the new light intensity if gradually exposed and tolerate higher levels of sun without suffering sun burn.
String of pearls is somewhat more light sensitive then most succulents so they prefer either bright indirect light or morning sun followed by afternoon shade.
Keep in mind that with more hours of sun there is a greater requirement for moisture, so I recommend watering consistently once per week to prevent the leaves turning brown and shriveled through dehydration.
Leaves at Base of the String of Pearls Plant Turn Brown and Drop Off
Another potential cause of your string of pearls plant leaves turning brown is due to age.
As the plant get grows and gets older the bottom leaves naturally turn brown and drop off as part of the plants naturally cycle, and this is true of all succulents.
This affect can be more pronounced in plants that are in more shade.
String of pearls prefer some bright light or some morning sun so if they are in too much shade the stems tend to grow long as the plant grows in the direction of more light.
This causes the leaves or pearls to become more sparse, particularly lower down the stem. The lower leaves then turn brown and drop off.
This can happen to all succulents but the affect is reduced by growing them in more sun. This keeps the plant shorter and more compact rather then leggy and sparse.
Be careful not to move your string of pearls to a location with significantly more sun in one go to avoid sun burn.
Too Much Moisture Can Cause Brown Leaves
String of pearl plants can turn brown (or yellow) as a sign of stress because there is too much moisture around the roots.
The symptoms of an over watered string of pearls plants are leaves that are turning brown, yellow or black and feel soft and have a mushy texture rather then firmer green leaves.
Too much moisture around the roots is usually caused by:
- Over watering. String of pearl plants are drought tolerant succulents that like to be on the dry side. If you are watering more then once per week you are likely over watering.
- Slow draining soils. String of pearls requires fast draining soil. Transfer strong of pearls to a specialized succulents and cactus potting mix for the optimal soil mix.
- Pots without drainage holes in the base. Pots without drainage holes in the base cause water to pool around the roots which causes root rot and the leaves and stems turn brown. Always plant string of pearls in pots with drainage holes to prevent excess water collecting in the bottom. Empty saucers or trays that are underneath your pots so that water can freely escape.
If the roots stay in damp soil for too long then this causes rot to which can turn the leaves from brown to black and kill the plant, however correcting the conditions can save it.
Watering depends on your climate but as a general rule wait until the soil has dried out before watering to maintain a healthy plant.
However you should prioritize replanting the succulent in a different pot (with drainage holes in the base) and use a specialized succulent potting mix to improve drainage.
The succulent soil needs to dry out between bouts of watering for the string of pearls to stay healthy.
If the plants condition does not improve despite improving drainage and watering practices then take cutting from healthy leaves and stems for propagation to grow new plants as the rot can eventually spread and kill the plant.
(To learn more, read my article how to revive a dying string of pearls plant).
Bruising Can Cause Brown String of Pearls Leaves
When they are healthy, string of pearl plants have nice firm leaves however they are susceptible to damage if the are bumped in some way.
Bruising can be quite localized to only a few leaves or stems if it it has hit in some way.
Strong of pearls are delicate so be careful when handling them and locate the plant out of harms way.
Recovery depends on the extent of the bruising but with light busing the leaves can revive, however persistent bruised leaves may have to be pruned for both functional and aesthetic reasons.
- String of pearl plants turn brown and shriveled as a response to under watering. Too much sun can burn the leaves and turn them brown.
- Over watering can turn the leaves brown or yellow, soft and mushy and can cause rot.
- String of pearls may turn brown if they are bruised by physical trauma in some way.
- To revive brown and shriveled string of pearl plants, increase the watering and change the potting soil to a gritty mixture made for succulents. Sun burnt leaves may require pruning.