The leaves and leaf tips of indoor palm trees turn brown because of of drought stress, low humidity and temperatures lower then 55ºF. The lower leaves turn brown and die back as the palm tree matures.
Palm tree leaves turn yellow and brown as a result of underwatering, overwatering and poor drainage or because of a sudden drop in temperature.
Too much sun can scorch the leaves yellow and brown.
To save the palm tree recreate the conditions of its native environment by increasing the humidity, watering when the first inch of the soil dries out and maintaining a stable temperature range of 65ºF to 75ºF (18ºC to 23ºC).
All the popular indoor palm tree species (Parlor palms, Areca palms, Kentia palms, Majesty Palms, Pony tail palms etc.) are from humid tropical climates and their leaves turn brown for the same reasons.
Keep reading to learn why your indoor palm leaves are turning brown and dying and how to implement the solutions to save it…
Palm Tree Leaves and Leaf Tips Turning Brown and Crispy
- Symptoms. Leaves turn brown and crispy with a dying appearance.
- Causes. Low humidity is the most common reason followed by underwatering and hydrophobic soil. Low temperatures and too much sun and contributing factors.
Palm trees are native to tropical environments and prefer high levels of humidity.
The humidity indoors is often as low as 10% (but can vary widely due to climate) and can drop even lower due to indoor heating in the Winter and air conditioning in the Summer.
The low humidity can sap moisture from the palm trees leaves more quickly then the roots can draw up moisture which results in the leaf tips initially turning dry and crispy.
Chronically low humidity (if the palm tree is in the direct air current of air conditioning for example) can result in entire leaves turning brown, crispy and dying back.
If the soil dries out too much between bouts of watering or the soil is watered too lightly then this can also contribute to the drought stress that results in leaves turning brown, although they may turn yellow and brown depending on the extent of the drought stress.
If the soil dries out completely then the soil can shrink away from the side of the pot and the surface of the soil becomes hydrophobic which means that water is repelled off the soils surface causing it to trickle down the side of the pot.
If the soil is hydrophobic then water cannot infiltrate properly and reach the roots where it is needed, which results in brown, crispy leaves that die back.
Temperatures Colder then 55ºF (12ºC) Causes Palm Tree Leaves to Turn Brown
Temperature extremes and fluctuations can also be contributing factors to a palm tree’s leaves turning brown.
Palm trees are native to warm climates and most species of houseplant palm trees do not tolerate cold temperatures particularly well.
If the temperature is lower then 55ºF (12ºC) or drops suddenly even if it in the preferred temperature range then this can result in the palm tree’s leaves turning brown.
Also bear in mind that if the leaves are in contact with the glass of a window then the temperature of the glass (particularly at night) can be substantially colder then the ambient temperature of the room which can be another significant cause of brown leaves.
How to Save Palm Trees with Brown Leaves due to Low Humidity and Cold Temperatures and Drought Stress
The key to saving your palm tree with brown leaves is to recreate some of the conditions of its native environment by increasing the humidity, watering regularly and protecting it from temperatures cooler then 55ºF (12ºC).
- Increase the humidity by misting the leaves every day or by using a humidifier. Misting the leaves is an effective way to counteract the dry air indoors and reduces the rate of water loss from the leaves. This alleviates the stress that causes brown leaf tips.
- Submerge the palm trees root ball in a basin of lukewarm water for 10 minutes. If the soil has dried out too much then simply watering it is not going to soften the soil enough for the water to infiltrate properly and become evenly moist. By submerging the pot the pot water can properly absorb into the soil and re hydrate the soil so that is evenly moist and the roots can access the moisture they need. Once the soil has been soaked once the soil’s structure should improve and you can water the palm normally. Ensure the water is luke warm as cold water can shcok this tropical plant.
- Always water palms trees with a generous soak, so that excess water trickles from the base of the pot. Watering too lightly only moistens the soils surface and the water does not reach the roots. Watering thoroughly ensures the soil is evenly moist to prevent the drought stress that causes the leaves to turn brown.
- Keep indoor palm trees in rooms with a stable temperature range of 65ºF to 75ºF (18ºC to 23ºC) .This is the preferred temperature range of the palm tree in its natural habitat. Avoid temperature fluctuations by locating your palm tree on the other side of room from sources of heat and avoiding cold draughty areas of the house such as window sills.
Once your have addressed all the environmental problems that can cause palm tree leaves to turn brown then the palm can start to recover.
Should I Cut Off Brown Palm Leaves?
Once the palm tree’s leaves have turned brown and crispy, they do not recover and turn green again. Cut any individual brown leaves or leaf tips back with a sharp pair of pruners. Cutting any brown leaves back helps to stimulate the growth of new healthy green leaves.
Lower Leaves of the Palm are Turning Brown and Dying Back
If just the lower leaves of your palm tree are turning brown and dying back then this does indicate their is anything wrong with the palm trees environment and the plant should be perfectly healthy.
The lower leaves of palm trees turn brown as the plant matures.
The palm tree redirects its energy into new growth which is higher up and therefore more likely to be exposed to more light. The newer leaves are therefore more able to contribute energy (by photosynthesis) to the palm tree.
The lower leaves then turn brown die back as they are typically larger and require more resources to sustain whilst contributing less to the plant compared to the newer leaves.
Prune the brown leaves back to the base of the plant with a sharp pair of pruners to improve the appearance of the palm tree.
Palm Tree Turning Yellow and Brown
- Symptoms. Leaves turning yellow and brown with a wilting, dying appearance.
- Causes. Overwatering and poor drainage or even underwatering. Cold temperatures are also likely a contributing factor as can too much sunlight.
The most common reason for palm trees turning yellow and brown is because the soil is too damp from overwatering or the drainage.
However underwatering can actually have the same symptoms with the leaves turning yellow and brown and dying back.
This reason both underwatering and overwatering both cause the same symptoms (yellow and brown leaves) is because the yellowing brown leaves indicates that their is not enough moisture and and nutrients been draw up by the roots.
Indoor palm trees need good drainage and require the top inch of the soil to dry between each bout of watering
Overwatering excludes oxygen from the soil which prevents the roots from respiring. If the roots cannot respire then they cannot function properly and uptake the moisture and nutrients that the palm tree requires.
If water and nutrients are not supplied to the leaves then they turn yellow and brown.
Keep in mind that overwatering is not the only reason for the soil to become too damp for the palm tree to tolerate.
If there is any saucers, trays or decorative outer pots without drainage holes in the base, then excess water pools at the bottom of the pot causing the potting medium to become intolerably saturated and result in root rot.
If the soil is too dense and compacted then this can reduces the rate at which the potting soil dries out, promoting the conditions for root rot.
If you leave it too long between each bout of watering then there is not enough moisture to sustain the leaves which causes them to turn yellow and brown.
Additionally temperatures outside of the palm trees preferred temperature range can contribute to the stress that results in yellow and brown leaves with cold temperature being a more prominent problem.
It is also important to not that most species of indoor palm trees need bright, indirect light. Too much sunlight can scorch the leaves initially yellow which then dry out and turn brown before dying back.
Always locate your palm trees in bright indirect light rather then full sun.
How to Save Indoor Palm Trees with Yellow and Brown Leaves
The first thing to do is to establish whether the cause of the yellow and brown leaves is because of underwatering or overwatering. The most effective way to do this is to feel the soil at the base of the pot through the drainage hole.
If the soil feels dried out then underwatering is your problems and if it is saturated then overwatering is the probable cause. (Keep in mind temperature can also be the cause).
You can also assess whether the plant is over or underwatered by the weight of the pot and lifting it to see potting soil is heavier or lighter then it should be.
If the soil is dry and underwatering is the cause then follow the same steps for the solution to palm tree leaves turning brown listed nearer the top of this article as the solutions are the same for both affiliations.
If the soil feels damp then here are the solutions:
- Always wait for the first inch of the potting soil to dry before watering. This creates the optimal balance of soil moisture to meet the watering requirements of the palm trees whilst mitigating the risk of root rot.
- Always empty saucers, trays and decorative pots of excess water regularly to allow for good drainage.
- If the soil has be firmed in too much after repotting or it is particularly slow draining then repot your palm tree. Palm trees need porous soil for good drainage and do not tolerate compacted soils as they don’t drain efficiently enough. Repot the palm tree to a potting mix of 75% potting soil to 25% perlite or horticultural grit. This improves the drainage and creates a porous structure to allow for good root respiration.
- Repot the palm tree in a terracotta or clay pot rather then plastic or ceramic. Terracotta and clay are naturally porous which allow the potting soil to dry out evenly between each bout of watering creating more favorable conditions and mitigating the risk of root rot (plastic and ceramic pots are impermeable which can retain too much moisture).
Once the potting soil has a chance to dry out (from an overwatered state) then the roots can being to function properly again which should alleviate the stress that caused the leaves to turn yellow and brown.
The leaves that have turned yellow and brown do not recover and turn green again. Cut these leaves with a sharp pair of pruners back to healthy growth to help stimulate new growth.
(Read my article, how to revive a dying indoor palm tree).
- Indoor palm tree leaf tips turn brown due to low humidity and cold temperatures. Dry air saps too much moisture from the leaves causing them to turn brown and crispy. Palm trees are native to warm tropical environments. Temperatures cooler then 55ºF (12ºC) causes the leaves to turn brown as a sign of stress.
- Indoor palm leaves turn yellow and brown as a result, underwatering, overwatering or too much sunlight. Too much direct sunlight scorches leaves yellow which then turn brown and die back.
- To save an indoor palm tree with brown leaves, increase the humidity with regular misting, only water when the top inch of soil feels dry, move the tree to an area of bright indirect light and maintain a temperature range of 65ºF to 75ºF (18ºC to 23ºC). Cut any brown leaves back to healthy growth with a sharp pair or pruners.